N.A.

Monilophthora roreri, causal agent of cacao frosty pod rot

Bailey, BA; Evans, HC; Phillips-Mora, W; Ali, SS; Meinhardt, LW
2017

Molecular plant pathology Dic. 2017 DOI: 10.1111/mpp.12648 ISBN/ISSN 1464-6722

Resumen

"M. roreri attacks Theobroma and Herrania species causing frosty pod rot. Theobroma cacao (cacao) is the host of major economic concern. M. roreri is a hemibiotroph with a long biotrophic phase (45-90 days). Spore masses, of apparent asexual origin, are produced on the pod surface after initiation of the necrotrophic phase. Spores are spread by wind, rain and human activity. Symptoms of the biotrophic phase can include necrotic flecks and, in some cases, pod malformation, but pods otherwise remain asymptomatic.
Relationship to Moniliophthora perniciosa.
M. roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of witches’s broom disease of cacao, are closely related. Their genomes are similar, including many of the genes they carry considered important in the disease process. M. perniciosa, also a hemibiotroph, has a typical basidiomycete lifestyle and morphology, forming clamp connections and producing mushrooms. Basidiospores infect meristematic tissues including flower cushions, stem tips, and pods. M. roreri does not form clamp connections or mushrooms and infects pods only. Both pathogens are limited to the Western Hemisphere and are a threat to cacao production around the world.
Agronomic importance
Disease losses due to frosty pod rot can reach 90% and result in field abandonment. M. roreri remains in the invasive phase in the Western Hemisphere not having reached Brazil, some islands within the Caribbean, and a few specific regions within otherwise invaded countries.
Disease management
The disease can be managed by a combination of cultural (for example maintaining tree height and removing infected pods) and chemical methods. These methods benefit from regional application but can be cost prohibitive. Breeding for disease resistance offers the greatest potential for frosty pod rot management and new tolerant materials are becoming available.
M. roreri attacks Theobroma and Herrania species causing frosty pod rot. Theobroma cacao (cacao) is the host of major economic concern. M. roreri is a hemibiotroph with a long biotrophic phase (45-90 days). Spore masses, of apparent asexual origin, are produced on the pod surface after initiation of the necrotrophic phase. Spores are spread by wind, rain and human activity. Symptoms of the biotrophic phase can include necrotic flecks and, in some cases, pod malformation, but pods otherwise remain asymptomatic.
Relationship to Moniliophthora perniciosa.
M. roreri and Moniliophthora perniciosa, causal agent of witches’s broom disease of cacao, are closely related. Their genomes are similar, including many of the genes they carry considered important in the disease process. M. perniciosa, also a hemibiotroph, has a typical basidiomycete lifestyle and morphology, forming clamp connections and producing mushrooms. Basidiospores infect meristematic tissues including flower cushions, stem tips, and pods. M. roreri does not form clamp connections or mushrooms and infects pods only. Both pathogens are limited to the Western Hemisphere and are a threat to cacao production around the world.
Agronomic importance
Disease losses due to frosty pod rot can reach 90% and result in field abandonment. M. roreri remains in the invasive phase in the Western Hemisphere not having reached Brazil, some islands within the Caribbean, and a few specific regions within otherwise invaded countries.
Disease management
The disease can be managed by a combination of cultural (for example maintaining tree height and removing infected pods) and chemical methods. These methods benefit from regional application but can be cost prohibitive. Breeding for disease resistance offers the greatest potential for frosty pod rot management and new tolerant materials are becoming available."

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